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Ubuntu is a computer operating system based on the Debian GNU/Linux distribution. It is named after the Southern African ethical ideology Ubuntu (philosophy) ("humanity towards others") and is distributed as free and open source software with additional proprietary software available. Ubuntu provides an up-to-date, stable operating system for the average user, with a strong focus on usability and ease of installation. Ubuntu has been selected by readers of desktoplinux.com as the most popular Linux distribution for the desktop, claiming approximately 30% of Linux desktop installations in both 2006 and 2007. Web statistics from late 2009 suggest that Ubuntu's share is between 40 and 50%.

Ubuntu is composed of multiple software packages, of which the vast majority are distributed under a free software license also known as open source. The main license used is the GNU General Public License which, along with the GNU Lesser General Public License (GNU LGPL), explicitly declares that users are free to run, copy, distribute, study, change, develop and improve the software. Ubuntu is sponsored by the UK-based company Canonical Ltd. , owned by South African entrepreneur Mark Shuttleworth . By keeping Ubuntu free and open source, Canonical is able to utilize the talents of community developers in Ubuntu's constituent components. Instead of selling Ubuntu for profit, Canonical creates revenue by selling technical support and from creating several services tied to Ubuntu.

Canonical endorses and provides support for three additional Ubuntu-derived operating systems: Kubuntu , Edubuntu and Ubuntu Server Edition. There are several other derivative operating systems including local language and hardware-specific versions.

Canonical releases new versions of Ubuntu every six months and supports Ubuntu for eighteen months by providing security fixes, patches to critical bugs and minor updates to programs. LTS (Long Term Support) versions, which are released every two years, are supported for three years on the desktop and five years for servers. The 12th release of Ubuntu, 10.04 [[Lucid Lynx]}, was released on April 29, 2010. Maverick Meerkat 10.10 released was on 10 October 2010. It is 13th release of Ubuntu. It is supported until April 2012 10.10.

History and development processEdit

Ubuntu is a fork of the Debian project's code base. The original aim was to release a new version of Ubuntu every six months, resulting in a more frequently updated system. Ubuntu's first release was on October 20, 2004.

The New York Times reported in January 2009 that Ubuntu had over ten million users.[1][2]. In June 2009 ZDNet reported, "Worldwide, there are 13 million active Ubuntu users with use growing faster than any other distribution.

On 4 March 2010 Ubuntu, announced a new style for Ubuntu with the theme "Light" with the release of Lucid Lynx 10.04 LTS on 29 April 2010 and it will define the look and feel for several years. Ubuntu says that "Light" defines the new design's goal to conserve a users resources.[3]


List of Ubuntu releases Edit

Colors: salmon for past releases, green for current releases, blue for planned releases.

Version Code name Release date Supported until
Desktops Servers
4.10 Warty Warthog 20 October 2004 30 April 2006
5.04 Hoary Hedgehog 8 April 2005 31 October 2006
5.10 Breezy Badger 13 October 2005 13 April 2007
6.06 LTS Dapper Drake 1 June 2006 14 July 2009 June 2011
6.10 Edgy Eft 26 October 2006 25 April 2008
7.04 Feisty Fawn 19 April 2007 19 October 2008
7.10 Gutsy Gibbon 18 October 2007 18 April 2009
8.04 LTS Hardy Heron 24 April 2008 April 2011 April 2013
8.10 Intrepid Ibex 30 October 2008 30 April 2010
9.04 Jaunty Jackalope 23 April 2009 23 October 2010
9.10 Karmic Koala 29 October 2009 April 2011
10.04 LTS Lucid Lynx 29 April 2010 April 2013 April 2015
10.10 Maverick Meerkat 10 October 2010 April 2012
11.04 Natty Narwhal 28 April 2011 October 2012
11.10 Oneiric Ocelot 13 October 2011 April 2013
12.04 LTS Precise Pangolin 26 April 2012 October 2017
12.10 Quantal Quetzal October 18 2012 April 2014
13.04 Raring Ringtail April 18 2013 October 2014 13.10 Saucy Salamander October 17 2013

Colors: salmon for past releases, green for current releases, blue for planned releases.

The List of Ubuntu releases section uses incorporated text from the English-language version of Wikipedia.The original article was at [1]. The list of authors can be seen in the page history. As with the Unofficial Ubuntu Wiki, the text of Wikipedia is available under the GNU Free Documentation License.

Distribution Edit

Ubuntu Server Edition An official derivative made for use in servers. Ubuntu Server handles mail, controls printers, acts as a file server, can host LAMP and more.

Kubuntu. An official derivative of Ubuntu using KDE instead of the GNOME which is used by default in Ubuntu.

Xubuntu. An official derivative of Ubuntu using Xfce. Xubuntu is intended for use on less-powerful computers or those who seek a highly efficient desktop environment on faster systems, and uses mostly GTK+ applications.

Lubuntu. Lubuntu is a project that is intended to lead to an official derivative of the Ubuntu operating system that is "lighter, less resource hungry and more energy-efficient", using the LXDE desktop environment.

Edubuntu. A complete Linux-based operating system targeted for primary and secondary education. It is freely available with community based support. The Edubuntu community is built on the ideas enshrined in the Edubuntu Manifesto: that software, especially for education, should be available free of charge and that software tools should be usable by people in their local language and despite any disabilities. Since version 8.04, Edubuntu has now been named Ubuntu Education Edition and has been made as an add-on for the Ubuntu operating system.

Gobuntu. Gobuntu was an official derivative of the Ubuntu operating system, aiming to provide a distribution consisting entirely of free software. It was officially announced by Mark Shuttleworth on July 10, 2007, and daily builds of Gobuntu 7.10 began to be publicly released. The project ended around the release of 8.04 and has since merged into mainline Ubuntu as a 'free software' option.

Ubuntu JeOS Described as "an efficient variant configured specifically for virtual appliances.

Ubuntu Mobile An embedded operating system designed for use on mobile devices. The operating system will use Hildon from maemo as its graphical front end.

Ubuntu Netbook Edition. Released in 2008, Netbook Edition is an official derivative of Ubuntu designed for netbooks using the Intel Atom processor.

ReferencesEdit

  1. http://education.zdnet.com/?p=2709
  2. http://www.google.com/trends?q=ubuntu%2C+fedora%2C+opensuse
  3. https://wiki.ubuntu.com/Brand

linksEdit

This page uses selected content from the English-language version of Wikipedia.The original article was at [2]. The list of authors can be seen in the page history. As with the Unofficial Ubuntu Wiki, the text of Wikipedia is available under the GNU Free Documentation License.

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